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DR. A.P.J. ABDUL KALAM'S RELETED BOOKS


wings of fire
An Autobiography: APJ Abdul Kalam With Arun Tiwari

Published By: Universities Press(India) Private Limited, Hyderabad.
I have worked under Dr APJ Abdul Kalam for over a decade. This might seem to disqualify me as his biographer, and I certainly had no notion of being one. One day, while speaking to him, I asked him if he had a message for young Indians. His message fascinated me. Later, I mustered the courage to ask him about his recollections so that I could pen them down before they were buried irretrievably under the sands of time.

We had a long series of sittings late into the night and early under the fading stars of dawn-all somehow stolen from his very busy schedule of eighteen hours a day. The profundity and range of his ideas mesmerized me. He had tremendous vitality and obviously received immense pleasure from the world of ideas. His conversation was not always easy to follow, but was always fresh and stimulating. There were complexities, subtleties, and intriguing metaphors and subplots in his narrative, but gradually the unfolding of his brilliant mind took the form of a continuous discourse.

When I sat down to write this book, I felt that it required greater skills than I possessed. But realising the importance of this task and regarding it an honour to have been permitted to attempt it, I prayed earnestly for the courage and caliber to complete it.

This book is written for the ordinary people of India for who Dr Kalam has an immense affection, and of who Dr Kalam is certainly one. He has an intuitive rapport with the humblest and simplest people, an indication of his own simplicity and innate spirituality.

For myself, writing this book has been like a pilgrimage. Through Dr Kalam, I was blessed with the revelation that the real joy of living can be found in only one way-in one's communion with an eternal source of hidden knowledge within oneself-which each individual is bidden to seek and find for himself or herself. Many of you may never meet Dr Kalam in person, but I hope you will enjoy his company through this book, and that he will become your spiritual friend.

I could include in this book only a few incidents among the many narrated to me by Dr Kalam. In fact, this book provides only a thumbnail sketch of Dr Kalam's life. It is quite possible that certain important incidents have been inadvertently dropped and that the contribution of some individuals to the projects co-ordinated by Dr Kalam has gone unrecorded. Since a quarter-century of profes­sional life separates me from Dr Kalam, some important issues might also have remained unrecorded or have been distorted. I am solely responsible for such shortcomings, which are, of course, completely unintentional.
Arun Tiwari
Contents
Preface (ix)
Acknowledgements (xi)
Introduction (xiii)
ORIENTATION (1)
CREATION (35)
PROPITIATION (107)
CONTEMPLATION (157)
Epilogue (179)



2020- A Vision for the New Millennium
APJ Abdul Kalam With YS Rajan

Both of us were born when India was still struggling for her independence. One was in the final year of school when Jawahar Lal Nehru made his famous speech about India waking up to make her tryst with destiny; the other was a child speaking a first few words. Our families were not known for riches or power. Destiny in the form of the progressive measures taken by independent India to harness science and technology in order to develop a modern nation brought us together.

It was the vision of the great Vikram Sarabhai, supported by Nehru and Homi Bhabha, which gave us the opportunity to work on the space programme. The programme was aimed at carrying developmental messages into homes all over the country, especially in the 6 lakh villages, by leap-frogging many traditional routes. The programme also aimed at surveying the natural resources of the country so that they could be harnessed to benefit our people. Many in India must have considered these objectives an unattainable dream in the early '60s when the space programme was born. We, however, along with many of our colleagues, saw these aims as a vision real and attainable. What followed was a shared mission. Every person in ISRO believed that they were born to realize all that space technology can bring to the country and its people.

For us, then, there was no going back. There were days and nights of work. Many failures and a few hard-won successes. The systems which were designed, developed, fabricated and tested were directed towards a common goal-a strong India, a developed and proud India with the benefits available all over the country. It is gratifying to note the vision, in relation to space technology, has come true now especially in terms of reaching out to the people; providing communication through networks in remote areas; disaster warning systems; quick resource surveys to target ground water, save our forest cover and so on. And, of course, in areas of certain strategic strengths, vital to India in a world which respects only strength.

We are also proud and happy that the dreams of many Indians in the agricultural, scientific, artistic, cultural and social fields have also come true. However, the vision of a prosperous India without poverty, an India strong in trade and commerce, an India strong in many fields of science and technology, an India with innovative industry and with health and education for all, has remained just partially realized. In some areas, in fact, pessimism has taken deep roots.

We have completed the fiftieth year of our independence, with a large majority born after independence. Every year about twenty million Indians are being added to the nation. What vision can they have? Should we, like some, question the very concept of development and leave our people to the same condition of stagnation which existed for centuries? Or think only of the upper strata of society and leave the rest to their fate, employing such nice sounding phrases as 'market driven strategies' and 'competitiveness'? Or leave the initiative to various globalizing forces? Where should we see India (and its people) going in the next two decades? In the next five decades? And more?

The authors were fortunate to have been associated with a large number of persons who were interested in posing these questions and finding some answers. These came substantially through a novel organization, the Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC), which launched a major exercise called Technology Vision for India up to 2020.

About 500 experts with unique experience in industry, academia, laboratories and government administration were deeply involved in the exercise. Experts and socially aware persons also participated. About 5000 people contributed indirectly through responses to questionnaires and other inputs.

Subsequently, while the teams deliberated on various issues and the draft reports, and later when the report was released by the Prime Minister on 2 August 1996, we had numerous opportunities to interact with many others about a vision for India. We had the benefit of various inputs ranging from encouraging suggestions for specific actions to pessimistic comments about the inability of systems to act on anything focused and long term. We travelled widely to interact with different sections of people in variegated parts of the country. We also reflected on the imperatives for India in a changing world.

We are aware of our systems of governance and social and political compulsions. We are fortunate to have gained experience in implementing projects involving people of various strata as beneficiaries, as well as projects entailing strong commercial pressures and those that are high profile, such as a satellite or a launch vehicle or missile project. The execution of these schemes provided varied experiences, which worked as base line knowledge for the shaping of this book.

Having taken these factors into account and after studying several vision reports of India and other countries, we still believe firmly that India can reach a developed country status by 2020. The Indian people can rise well above the present poverty and contribute more productively to their country because of their own improved health, education and self­esteem. India can have considerable technological strengths, so crucial for its strategic strengths and for economic and trade related strengths.

In this book we have attempted to share some of these thoughts. We have also disclosed elements of a few action plans, which can be missions for many young people in the country. We hope that these will help to stimulate young Indians and ignite their minds in the same way that we were ignited by the space programme three decades ago. Our vision ahead for the country and the missions we see before us make us feel young even now.

A developed India, by 2020 or even earlier is not a dream. It need not even be a mere aspiration in the minds of many Indians. It is a mission we can all take up-and accomplish.

Ignited young minds, we feel, are a powerful resource. This resource is mightier than any resource on the earth, in the sky and under the sea. We must all work together to transform our 'developing India' into a 'developed India', and the revolution required for this effort must start in our minds. This book, India 2020, will hopefully be the source for igniting many minds.
Contents
Acknowledgements (xi)
Preface (xiii)
1. Can India Become a Developed Country? (1)
2. What Other Countries Envision for Themselves (26)
3. Evolution of Technology Vision 2020 (46)
4. Food, Agriculture and Processing (59)
5. Materials and the Future (87)
6. Chemical Industries and Our Biological Wealth (118)
7. Manufacturing for the Future (139)
8. Services As People's Wealth (156)
9. Strategic Industries (187)
10. Health Care for All (217)
11. The Enabling Infrastructure (241)
12. Realizing the Vision (268)
Afterword (305)
Appendix (306)
References and Further Reading (308)


Envisioning an Empowered Nation
Technology for Societal Transformation: APJ Abdul Kalam With A Sivathanu Pillai
Published By: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi.
During the last four years, I have visited almost all parts of India and interacted with people from all walks of life- students, youths, farmers, scientists, engineers, technicians, doctors, medical staff, educationists, industrialists, armed forces personnel, spiritual leaders, political leaders, administrators, economists, artists, sports persons, physically and mentally challenged and the rural populace. What have I learnt from these interactions across the different cross-sections of Indian population?

School children and youth also interacted with me through my website. They gave many suggestions on making India a developed nation and their role in achieving this mission. I would like to highlight a few of the suggestions, among the many, which I received from children and youth.

One student from Meghalaya responded, "I enjoy teaching as it can shape children to be good citizens of our country. So I want to become a teacher or a soldier to defend my country". Another girl from Pondicherry said, "A garland can be made only with many flowers with a common thread. Therefore, I will make my countrymen love the nation and work for the unity of minds to realise the garland - Developed India". Another boy from Goa said, "I would become an electron and just like an electron in the orbit, I will work ceaselessly for my country". A boy of Indian origin based at Atlanta, responded, "When India becomes self-reliant and has the capability to put sanctions against any country, if needed, then I will sing the song of India, and I will work for it". The young boy meant that India should become a developed country with economic prosperity, accompanied with national security and political will.

What noble thoughts from the young minds! These are only examples. The aspiration of young ignited minds to make the nation great is evident. It is important to recognise that India has a population of 700 million such young minds. This is a large force, which needs to be harnessed constructively towards a singular mission of making India a developed country. Like the young, every citizen of India I interacted with, would like to live in a happy, prosperous, peaceful and safe India.

I have seen the beauty of our country in the deserts, mountains, seashores, forests and in the fields. India has a rich, civilisations, heritage, resource, talented workforce and above all there is potential due to the emergence of a knowledge society. Still 26% of our population is below the poverty line, illiteracy and large scale unemployment persist. While it is imperative to address these problems, it is also necessary to increase the economic growth. This can be achieved by an effective management of resources and manpower - our core competencies.

We must get rid of the inferiority Complex and defeat the defeatist spirit that plagues us. We must celebrate our success and encourage the talented to work for missions which will bring glory to India

Our Prime Minister during his address on the eve of Independence Day 2002, declared that India will become a Developed Nation by 2020. The tenth five-year plan also focuses on an economic growth of 8% and an employment potential of one hundred million.

In recent years, technology has come to play a dominant role in improving the quality of life. Technology is the engine capable of driving a nation towards growth and prosperity, and giving it the necessary competitive edge in the comity of nations. Technology, thus, has an important role to play transforming India into a developed country.

In my earlier book, "India 2020-A vision for the new millennium", written in 1998 with Shri Y S Rajan, we discussed the Technology Vision 2020 by TIFAC, which was evolved with the help of 500 experts. In the last few years, there have been significant developments and technological revolutions Now a consensus has emerged in all the sections of the society, particularly among the youth and children, to live in Developed India and take appropriate actions. Even the Indian families living abroad have expressed their desire participate in missions to transform India into a developed nation. In view of the above, a need has been felt to write this book. This book goes into the specific details pertaining to the impact of technology on society, and the missions leading to a Developed India by 2020.

When we were developing rockets, launch vehicles, missile systems and related technologies in India, the developed world denied technology, for many reasons, to us. This resulted in challenging the young minds into action. Technology denied is technology gained.

Today, India has core competence in system design, system engineering, system integration and system management of launch vehicles, missiles and aircraft, and capabilities for developing critical technologies. This book brings out these aspects in an integrated manner through two important case studies on the design of a launch vehicle and a guided missile. Our aim is to convey that just like science, we have to make technology a universal system, decoupling geo-political policies. These case studies pertain to our experiences of working at ISRO and DRDO, and with great technology visionaries- Dr. Vikram Sarabhai and Prof. Satish Dhawan.

During the lectures and talks that have been given to school and college students participation of the youth has been tremendous and thought-provoking. It is these interactions with the youth of India that inspired us to share our experiences and vision in making India a developed nation.

India has many successful experience of managing mission mode programmes. We recognise the importance of technology and the role that it can play while formulating policies and implementing programmes in mission mode. The requirement today is the creation of a suitable environment in tune with the times, and India’s transformation into a knowledge society. For harnessing the potential of the youth and the resources, creative leadership is essential.

Networking of thoughts and deeds of one billion people towards a common goal of making India a developed nation is indeed the need of the hour.
A P J ABDUL KALAM & A SIVATHANU PILLAI
Contents
Prologue (vii)
Acknowledgements (xi)
Abbreviations (xv)
Introduction (xxi)
1. Technology: The Prime Mover for a Developed Nation (1)
2. The Dimensions of Technology (29)
3. Value Addition in Agriculture (49)
4. Manufacturing in the Knowledge Era (63)
5. Healthcare Revolution (85)
6. Advances in the Strategic Sector (115)
7. Integrated Knowledge Economy (147)
8. Vision to Mission (167)
Epilogue (195)
Conclusion (203)
CASE STUDY I
Design of Satellite Launch Vehicles
Recollection of SLV-3 Experience (209)
CASE STUDY II
Integrated Design Approach for Advanced Aerospace Vehicles
A Guided Missile Experience (227)
References (245)
Index (251)


Ignited Minds
Unleashing The Power Within India: APJ Abdul Kalam

Nations consist of people. And with their effort a nation can accomplish all it could ever want. Motivating India's people, and its youth especially, is the central theme of Ignited Minds, which continues the trajectory of thoughts taken up in my earlier two books, Wings of Fire and India 2020: A Vision for the New Millennium, written with my friends Arun Tiwari and Y.S. Rajan. I have chosen to write about this subject of igniting young minds so that India turns into a developed nation by the year 2020 because all through my career in the field of technology and its management, I relied on the power and potential of youth. My strength has been my young teams who never let me down. And what satisfaction there was in working with them on some of the most complex projects in some of the most challenging situations! Given the freedom to achieve and guided properly, I am convinced the young of India can accomplish far more.

As I began writing, I wondered if I was not overreaching myself. I thought: Who am I to write about this capacity of India to realize its destiny as a developed nation? What do I really know about how this can be accomplished beyond what I have learned in my projects and missions evolved around science and technology? Isn't this an area that political leaders, economists, thinkers and other competent people would address better? How am I qualified to tell others about an ability that has been generally ignored?

At first as I was putting down my experiences with youth, I had no idea of what I would have to say. However, I put aside my doubts and began to examine what I hear from the people I meet during my visits to different places, particularly children, saints and seers, teachers, scientists, industry leaders and even political leaders. I am sure on my part that India has the ability to transform itself into a developed nation. Through my projects in space, defence and nuclear sectors, I know that our people have the ability to achieve the best in the world. They have a fantastic mix of belief and knowledge that sets them apart from any other nation on earth. I also know that their potential has gone untapped because we have become used to being subjugated and docile. What better project can I undertake than to tell my people that what they dream of can become possible, that they can have anything that comprises a good life: health, education, the freedom to pursue their goals, and above all, peace.

My quest for answers as to how this could be done took me to schools, the countryside, ashrams and many other places which were not part of my itinerary earlier. It was a new kind of experience, a very stimulating one at that. The paddy fields in Bihar left to an ad-hoc cycle of agriculture, the untapped mineral wealth of the newly formed state of Jharkhand and the unattended biodiversity of Tripura, throwing a great challenge to the knowledge era that is dawning. In Assam the sight of the mighty Brahmaputra almost mesmerized me. Its vast expanse of water filled me with a strange sense of helplessness too-the river's untapped flow was taking a gigantic mass of water into the sea. It made me think, that as a nation too we were failing to utilize our tremendous energies.

Where are we making a mistake? What is it that needs to be corrected? We have a roadmap in our five-year plans that covers some of the things we need to achieve. We have most of the necessary resources. There seems to be an attitude problem, as if we cannot shake ourselves out of a mindset of limited achievement. This book is all about breaking away from the forces that would prefer us to remain a nation of a billion people selling cheap labour and raw materials and providing a large market for goods and services of other nations.

I am writing this book to make my young readers hear a voice that says, 'Start moving.' Leadership must lead us to prosperity. Young Indians with constructive ideas should not have to see them wither in the long wait for approval. They have to rise above norms which are meant to keep them timid in the name of safety and to discourage entrepreneurship in the name of trade regimes, organizational order and group behaviour. As it is said, Thinking is the capital, Enterprise is the way, Hard Work is the solution.

Every nation has struggled to achieve its goals. Generations have given their best to make life better for their offspring. There is nothing mysterious or hidden about this, no alternative to effort. And yet we fail to follow the winning track. More than the problems outside-globalization, recession, inflation, insurgency, instability and so on-I am concerned about the inertia that has gripped the national psyche, the mindset of defeat. I believe that when we believe in our goals, that what we dream of can become reality, results will begin to follow. Ignited Minds is about developing that conviction in ourselves, and discarding the things that hold us back.

This was, in fact, a central thought that I kept in mind as I wrote. Share my dream of a developed India and see it made real in your own and others' lives. In my own way, I have tried to follow my beliefs, to do what I loved doing. I have tried, however, to guide but not to impose my views on others.

You will find in this book plain speaking: Surge ahead as a developed nation or perish in perpetual poverty, subservient to a few countries that control the world politically and economically. There are no other alternatives.

In the nine chapters of this book, I take up various themes. I begin with a rumination on peace, without which there can be no progress, and on the shift in the direction of my own life that occurred after surviving a helicopter crash. There is a chapter based on my interaction with children allover India. Other chapters contain the insights I gained in my meetings with saints and seers, scientists, outstanding thinkers and others. There are accounts of some promising experiments in agriculture and in the medical field. Elsewhere I deal with concepts that carry the seed of solutions. The contents essentially come from the people of this nation, from what they have taught me.

I have written this book as an expression of my faith in the potential of India and my countrymen. We have all the resources we need, whether it be people, talent, natural bounty or other assets. India is truly blessed with a real, though latent, abundance. Scarcity of resources is not the cause of our problems. Our problems originate in our approach towards them. We are spreading our resources too wide and too thin. With our resources and the money we spend we could easily accomplish three times what we do, in half the time we normally take, if we were to operate in mission mode with a vision for the nation. The vision generates the best in every field.

We must change tracks. It is imperative that our policy making become more responsive and efficient so that the stifled entrepreneurship is liberated. Key to that is better coordination among the various departments, rather than emphasis on priorities according to the preferences of individual departments. There are more reviews than views available. Every channel appears blocked by some obstacle or the other. The trapped energies and the suppressed initiative need to be freed and properly harnessed. Nor do we particularly need every time to borrow models from elsewhere. I don't think the American, Japanese or Singaporean solutions will work for us. Knocking at others' doors will be futile. Instead of importing theories and transplanting concepts we need to grow our own solutions. Instead of searching for answers outside we will have to look within for them.

I hope that when you go through these nine chapters you will be given the guidance that I got from the people of my country and feel connected to the wisdom that is so special to this soil. The reality of a developed nation will become part of your daily life. Twenty years from now I may not be around. But I am sure many of you will be there to share in the glory of success and agree that I was right in being so confident.

Many friends and associates helped me put this book together. I am grateful to them all. My special thanks to Mr Y.S. Rajan, and Dr M.S. Vijayaraghavan for shaping my thoughts with their vital inputs. Dr- A. Sivathanu Pillai has worked with me for a long time and his contribution has been both timely and invaluable in giving shape to ideas and thoughts. I am fortunate to have his friendship. I am grateful to Mr H. Sheri don who directly keyed in my dictations into his laptop computer with outstanding skill. My co-author in Wings of Fire, Mr Arun K. Tiwari, did his usual craftsmanship with words on the manuscript and I appreciate every bit of that. It was a great pleasure to work with Mr Krishan Chopra of Penguin Books. From the - emanation of my thoughts to the book's realization, his constant interaction was of great support.
A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
Contents
Acknowledgements (viii)
Preface (ix)
1. The Dream and the Message (1)
2. Give Us a Role Model (21)
3. Visionary Teachers and Scientists (40)
4. Learning from Saints and Seers (70)
5. Patriotism beyond Politics and Religion (100)
6. The Knowledge Society (119)
7. Getting the Forces Together (138)
8. Building a New State (159)
9. To My Countrymen (179)
Epilogue (190)
Song of Youth (196)
References (197)
Index (199)

My Journey
APJ Abdul Kalam
Published By:
V Suryanarayana Murthy
Contents
SALUTATION (3)
HARMONY (11)
PURSUIT OF HAPPINESS (13)
GRATITUDE (17)
ANGUISH (21)
NATURE (23)
GOD (27)
MESSAGE (31)
WHO (33)
CLOUDS (35)
PRIDE (37)
ANCESTOR'S DESIRE (39)
UNSEEN HANDS (43)
ROCK WALLS (47)
INTEGRATION (49)
MEMORY (51)
TUMULT (55)
TEARS (59)
POEM BY JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTER (61)

Developments in Fluid Mechanics and Space Technology
R Narasimha & APJ Abdul Kalam
Published By:
Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore.
It gives us great pleasure to present this volume of papers and essays dedicated to Prof Satish Dhawan, and so to have the opportunity to honour the man who (among other things) founded fluid dynamics research in this country and led the national space programme to its present state of remarkable maturity and sophistication.

SATISH DHAWAN was born on 25 September 1920 in Srinagar, and was educated in this country and the United States. He graduated from the University of Punjab with an unusual combination of degrees: a BA in Mathematics and Physics, an MA in English Literature, and a BE in Mechanical Engineering. In 1947 he obtained an MS in Aeronautical Engineering from the University of Minnesota, and moved to the California Institute of Technology, where he was awarded the Aeronautical Engineer's Degree in 1949 and a Ph.D. in Aeronautics and Mathematics in 1951 with Prof Hans W Liepmann as adviser.

Prof Dhawan began his career in fluid dynamics research at Caltech with studies of shock reflection [1]* and shock/boundary layer interaction [6]; the definitive schlieren pictures and pressure measurements that resulted from these studies immediately illuminated the phenomena and became the point of departure for the numerous investigations that were subsequently carried out all over the world. He made the first precise direct measurements of skin friction on a flat plate [4, 5, 8], designing a special balance for the purpose that was later widely adopted and used in many laboratories (figure 1). He joined the Indian Institute of Science in 1951, becoming Professor and Head of the Department of Aeronautical Engineering there four years later. During the 11 years he spent at the Department, Prof Dhawan followed up his early interest in wind tunnels [2, 3] by setting up the high speed aerodynamics and boundary layer laboratories [7,9, 10, 16], and in fact laid the foundations of experimental research in fluid dynamics in India. He and his students provided the first practical model for the transition zone in boundary layers [11, 13] and discovered connections with transition to turbulent flow in pipes and channels [20] and on axisymmetric bodies [27]. A series of pioneering experimental studies on the reverse transition from turbulent to laminar flow followed [21, 26]. Base flows [12], separation bubbles [22], wall jets [24], three-dimensional boundary layers [28] and transonic aerodynamics [14, 23] were other areas that received considerable attention. A pilot project carried out at the Institute under his direction [17, 18] led to the establishment of major wind tunnels at the National Aeronautical Laboratory, which was founded in 1959.

Two outstanding features of all these efforts reveal Satish Dhawan's philosophy in research [25, 32]: first, they were carried out at low cost with ingenious development or adaptation of whatever materials, skills and instrumentation were available at the time; second, the basic research areas investigated in his laboratories were all inspired in some way by the problems faced by the newly-born aircraft industry of the country (in which he had spent a year before he went to the US for higher education). In later years he constantly sought to promote the development of this industry at the higher levels of policy and management.
In 1962 Prof Dhawan was appointed the Director of the Institute. During the following 18 years he retained his interest in fluid dynamics and aeronautics (e.g. carrying out an elaborate evaluation of the airworthiness of an aircraft flying for Indian Airlines [29]), but devoted much time to the establishment of many new scientific programmes in the Institute, in such areas as automation and control theory, materials science, molecular biology and biophysics, technology for rural areas, theoretical physics, applied mathematics, solid state chemistry and atmospheric sciences. At the same time he played a key role in formulating the science and technology policy of the country, through such bodies as the Scientific Advisory Committee to the Union Cabinet.

In 1972 Prof Dhawan was appointed Chairman of the Space Commission and of the Indian Space Research Organisation, and Secretary to the Government of India in the Department of Space. In the following decade he directed the Indian space programme through a period of extraordinary growth and spectacular achievement [30, 31.. 33]. Major programmes were carefully defined and systematically executed, including in particular the launch of Indian satellites on Indian rocket vehicles. Pioneering experiments were carried out in remote sensing and satellite communications [34], and led to operational systems that became a part of Indian life. These projects were all distinguished by their keen sensitivity to the true needs of a developing nation, a confident appreciation of the ability of its scientists and engineers [36], and the carefully planned involvement of Indian industry, both public and private [35, 38]. It is no surprise that the Indian space programme came to be seen in the 1980s as a model of technology development and application carried out within the country. One of us (Kalam) recalls a late evening in Cauvery Bhavan with Prof Dhawan, discussing space missions for the next two decades. Colleagues opened out computer printouts, data charts on launch vehicles, and plans for spacecraft launch complexes and development of connected real time software. Many mission options were debated linking launch vehicle configuration, aerodynamic design, propellant technology, and control guidance and spacecraft systems. The long and careful consideration that Prof Dhawan had devoted to these issues were summarised by him the next morning in the form of two graphs (figures 2, 3) prepared in his own hand, bringing out a space mission profile for the next 15 years (1980-1995). These graphs have become the blueprints for the national space programme.

After his retirement from formal positions in Government, Prof Dhawan continues as a member of the Space Commission, taking time every now and then to analyse matters of public policy in science and technology [37, 38].

This volume is in two loosely-connected parts. The first is a collection of research papers in fluid dynamics, chiefly on subjects Prof Dhawan contributed to or was keenly interested in at one time or the other during his career. Some of the papers in this section were presented as invited lectures at the 1986 Asian Congress of Fluid Mechanics in Tokyo; these Congresses have been actively encouraged and supported by Prof Dhawan right from their inauguration in 1980. The second part highlights the advances made in space technology over the period 1972-1984 when Prof Dhawan led the national space programme.

The first part begins with a paper by Hama and coworkers on transition in the boundary layer, which was one of Prof Dhawan's first interests when he began his research in Bangalore. This paper reveals in considerable detail the dynamics of three-dimensional instability in the nonlinear stage: computer simulations, experiments, and linear, time-dependent analyses have provided much fresh insight on the problem. Hama and his colleagues offer simple explanations for the formation of the longitudinal vorticity field in the fundamental and sub-harmonic mode interactions.

S Taneda presents a pictorial survey of what he calls "irregular flows". He looks upon flows at large Reynolds numbers as consisting of many coherent structures fluctuating irregularly. This paper is a small album of the kind we believe is close to Prof Dhawan's heart. Papamoschou & Roshko describe some pioneering experiments on supersonic free shear layers, and show how the genuine effect of compressibility (as distinguished from that of variable density) can be accounted for through a convective Mach number. Zhang & Wang study the two-dimensional structure of longitudinal vortices on the walls of a curved channel, when the flow is laminar as well as turbulent. They combine hydrogen-bubble flow visualisation with conditional sampling and VITA analysis to describe the structure of the flow near the wall. Takaki & Hussain study numerically the recombination of two vortex filaments in a viscous compressible fluid. They apply their results in particular to predict the far-field noise of a circular jet by assuming that the main noise source is the recombination process in deformed vortex rings in the jet near-field, and show that the predicted noise intensity is consistent with the known dependence on velocity, but has an additional factor depending on the size of the vortex filament. Zhou & Chen continue with their studies of turbulent flow, and display results for triple and quadruple correlations for the plane turbulent wake.
Three papers on the control of turbulent flows attempt to assess the current position in one of Prof Dhawan's life-long interests. Efforts to reduce the skin-friction drag of a surface by introduction of manipulators in a turbulent boundary layer are reviewed by Narasimha & Sreenivasan, who provide at the end a map of manipulator parameters that might lead to lower drag. Badri Narayanan reports the results of experiments in which a plane jet is excited by periodic oscillations into unfamiliar states of motion, involving a substantial increase in entrainment. Viswanath reviews current work on shock/boundary layer interaction and possible methods of control for applications.
There follow three papers on aerodynamics. M A Ramaswamy shows how a symmetric lifting supercritical aerofoil can be successfully designed, and presents experimental results confirming the design. The possibility that supercritical aerofoils need not have the asymmetric shapes now associated with them may have value in supersonic flight. Methods that have been developed to compute low-density flows, from an effort carried out in part for ISRO, are described in a paper by Deshpande & Subba Raju. The special aerodynamic problems posed by satellite launch vehicles are considered by T S Prahlad, with emphasis on those encountered in the Indian space programme. Particular attention is devoted to the analysis of multi-body configurations (such as strap-on boosters) and bulbous payload shrouds.

Liepmann shows how surprisingly far one can go by dimensional analysis in understanding cavity radiation, both at rest and in motion. Yajnik makes an analysis of limiting and modeling arguments in fluid dynamics by breaking them down into a sequence of steps and examining the associated sequence of flow problems. Mukunda shows how consideration of variable thermodynamic and transport properties in analysis of combusting flows does more than merely improve the accuracy of the solutions, and in fact often leads to qualitatively different results.

In the section on space technology, the paper by Kalam, Sarma & Prahlada discusses how classical processes of aerospace vehicle system design can be integrated and automated through interface design packages using CAD/CAM work stations and parallel processors. Kurup, Krishnamoorthy & Uttam highlight the methods by which contemporary high energy propellants were developed in India, leading to the establishment of a Space Booster Rocket Propellant Plant capable of producing large rocket motors next in size only to the Space Shuttle and Titan.

The paper by Gupta & Suresh describes the upgradation of the open-loop inertial guidance technology used in the first Indian Satellite Launch Vehicle SLY3 to a closed-loop guidance system for ISROs Augmented and Polar Satellite Launch Vehicles (ASLY. PSLY). The self-sufficiency attained in inertial guidance technology, from sensors to on-board processors, control systems and various software modules, is described. The review system developed in this programme for the design and validation of software could be a standard for application in advanced aerospace projects. Kasturirangan describes the evolution of Indian spacecraft technology in its attempt to meet the growing demand for proper utilisation of the vast natural resources of the country and for communication with the remotest regions of the land. The progress in spacecraft structural design and payload characteristics with the adoption of the modularity concept can be clearly seen. Such progress is responsible for the expectation that the Indian National Satellite INSAT-II should cost less than similar satellites made elsewhere in the world.

One of the crucial ingredients in the success of the Indian space programme has been its management system. Rajan describes the management philosophy and style of Prof Dhawan, emphasising how multiple space technologies were consolidated and oriented towards the twin space applications of remote sensing of natural resources and space communication. The space-industry network that has implemented these programmes, and the international cooperation that has marked it, are both discussed. The unique mechanisms evolved by Prof Dhawan to involve users in the management of operational space systems are also touched upon.

Finally we have two papers in areas which Prof Dhawan actively encouraged. G N V Rao surveys wind engineering studies in India, and some of the investigations carried out in the large low-speed tunnel at the Institute. P C Sinha describes the status of modelling an important geophysical problem, namely that of storm surges in the Bay of Bengal.

PROF DHAWAN has been widely honoured for his contributions to science and technology by various bodies within India and abroad. He was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Science by the Universities of Roorkee (1972), Punjab (1978) and Delhi (1984), the Cranfield Institute of Technology, UK (1975), and the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (1981); and the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws by the University of Bombay (1976). He is a Distinguished Alumnus of the California Institute of Technology (1969) and of the Indian Institute of Science (1984), and an Honorary Fellow of the Aeronautical Society of India (1979), the Institution of Engineers (1983), and the Indian Institute of Science (1981). He was elected Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society in 1963, of the Indian Academy of Sciences in 1972, and of the Indian National Science Academy in 1978; he is a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1972) and a Foreign Associate of the US National Academy of Engineering (1978). He was President of the Aeronautical Society of India during 1968-69, and of the Indian Academy of Sciences during 1977-80. He has been conferred the Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru Award in Engineering and Technological Sciences of the Madhya Pradesh Government (1983), the Rajyotsava Award of Karnataka (1984), the Om Prakash Bhasin Award for Science and Technology (1985), the Parikh Memorial Award (1986) and the Watumull Foundation Medal (1987). The Government of India honoured him with Padma Shri in 1966, Padma Bhushan in 1971, and Padma Vibhushan in 1981.

PROF DHAWAN has in his professional career been engineer, teacher, research scientist, technologist, manager, leader and adviser -often all at the same time! His great human qualities, combining intense personal charm with a deep; commitment to social values and an extraordinary objectivity in management, have led several generations of students, colleagues and administrators to efforts that they would otherwise not have undertaken. This volume does not pretend to reflect all the contributions to science and technology he has made: his example, counsel and philosophy have had far wider and deeper influence than the papers collected here can indicate, and will we hope be described elsewhere. Meanwhile, all the authors who have contributed to this volume take great pleasure in paying tribute to one who has distinguished himself in so many different ways, through the Academy over which he presided and the journal which he helped to found.
R Narasimha & A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
Contents
Foreword (i)
Transitional flows
F R HAMA, U RIST, U KONZELMANN, E LAURIEN and F MEYER:
Vorticity field structure associated with the 3D Tollmien-Schlichting waves (1)
S TANEDA: Irregular flows (29)
Turbulent flows
D PAP AMOSCHOU and A ROSHKO: Observations on supersonic free shear layers (59)
ZHANG ZHAOSHUN and WANG XILIN: Visualization and analysis of longitudinal vortices at curved walls of 2D laminar and turbulent channel flows (71)
RYUJI TAKAKI and A K M FAZLE HUSSAIN: Recombination of two vortex filaments and jet noise (83)
ZHOU (CHOU) PEl-YUAN and CHEN SHI- YI: On the theory of turbulence for incompressible fluids (97)
Flow management
R NARASIMHA and K R SREENIV ASAN: Flat plate drag reduction by turbulence manipulation (113)
M A BADRI NARAYANAN: The behaviour of excited plane jets (129)
P R VISW ANA lli: Shock-wave-turbulent-boundary-layer interaction and its control: A survey of recent developments (143)
Aerodynamics
M A RAMASWAMY: Characteristics of a typical lifting symmetric supercritical airfoil (203)
S M DESHPANDE and P V SUBBA RAJU: Monte Carlo simulation for molecular gas dynamics (217)
T S PRAHLAD: A profile of aerodynamic research in VSSC wit application to satellite launch vehicles (237)
General Analyses
HANS W LIEPMANN: Dimensional analysis and equilibrium radiation (295)
KIRIT S YAJNIK: Limits and models in fluid mechanics (299)
H S MUKUNDA : Variable property analysis - Is there anything to it? (313)
Space technology
A P J ABDUL KALAM, B S SARMA and PRAHLADA: Integrated Design approach for advanced aerospace vehicles (327)
M R KURUP, V N KRISHNA MOORTHY and M C UTTAM: Development of Solid propellant technology in India (337)
S C GUPTA and B N SURESH: Development of navigation, guidance and control technology for Indian launch vehicles (343)
K KASTURIRANGAN and K R SRIDHARAMURTHY: ISRO spacecraft technology evolution (359)
Y S RAJAN: Management of the Indian space programme (397)
Non-aerospace fluid mechanics
G N V RAO: A Survey of wind engineering studies in India (415)
P C SINHA: Hydrodynamics numerical modelling of storm surges - Application To the Bay of Bengal (433)

The Luminous Sparks
A biography in verse and colours: APJ Abdul Kalam
Published By:
Punya Publishing Private Limited, Bangalore
Some thoughts ...

Poems are the result of peak happiness or sorrow. Common traits of both happiness and sorrow are tears. In one case, tears will be sweet. In another case, it will be salty. Human life is a combination of both.

This reminds me of the great Poet Saint Thiruvalluvar. He says.
This means:

"Successful leaders can never be defeated by problems. They become master of the situation and defeat the problems."

This is my message to the readers of this poetry book.

Best Wishes.

The Life Tree
Poems : A.P.J.Abdul Kalam
Painting illustrations by Manav Gupta

Published By: 
Penguin Books India (Private) Limited, New Delhi.
Poems of Love, Faith and Patriotism

Our respected President, Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, has contributed invaluably to our country's progress in space research and defence technologies. However, he is not only an eminent scientist. He is also a sensitive and thoughtful poet. This confluence of scientific brilliance and poetic talent is truly unique.

The poem contained in this book bring out Dr. Kalam's deep love for India and her rich culture. Together with his devotion to God and to this Motherland, his devotion to humanity is also uniquely manifested in thess poems. Beleiving his ability and acheivements to be God's gifts, he has dedicated them to the welfare of the Indian people. Through the medium of his poetry he has send a message of selfless service, dedication and pure faith.

Dr. Kalam has always been an opponent of communalism, casteism, linguistic chauvinism, regionalism and voilence. Showing a profound understanding of Indian society, he attempts to find solution to problems with compassion, detachment, forbearance and sympathy. In this poem he has attempted, very credibly, to express in simple terms even a concept as a complex as the search for God.


'O creator of dreams,
Why do you keep searching for God?
Nature is His home, purity His abode
And Life is but His blessing!
Keep loving nature and care for its being,
Then you can see divinity all over!'


As a true Indian, Dr. Kalam is naturally distressed by the misuse of religion for ungodly ends. Nevertheless, he is confident that true faith in God and compassion for humankind can save us from the poison of communalism and casteism. He says:


The so-called educated seperate our souls....
They give not knowledge but hate and defeat;
Tell others not to heed their unwanted advice,
As the Almighty created all equal and free.


Behind his scientific acheivements and poetic works, Dr. Kalam dreams of better world for the children of India and the world. He says:


I have no house, only open space
Filled with truth, kindness, desire and dreams:
Desire to see my country developed and great,
Dreams to see happiness and peace abound.


Reading Dr. Kalam's poems, my heart fills with patriotism, love and faith. With this same faith I am honoured to be place these poems before you.
Contents
Acknowledgements (viii)
Foreward by Atal Bihari Vajpayee (ix)
1. Song of Youth (1)
2. The Life Tree (5)
3. O Alimighty, Light the Lamp of Knowledge (11)
4. Harmony (15)
5. Pursuit of Happiness (17)
6. Gratitude (21)
7. Anguish (25)
8. Nature (27)
9. God (31)
10. Message (35)
11. Let It Be We (37)
12. Clouds (41)
13. Pride (45)
14. Ancestor's Desire (47)
15. Unseen Hands (51)
16. Rock Walls (55)
17. His Best Creation (59)
18. Memory (63)
19. Tumult (67)
20. Tears (71)
21. My Mother (73)
22. Whispers of Jasmine (77)
23. Prayer Touches the Soul (81)
24. Soaring Dreams (85)
25. I Am the Child of Bihar (87)
26. My National Prayer (89)

Mission India
Poems : A.P.J.Abdul Kalam
Painting illustrations by Manav Gupta

Published By: 
Penguin Books India (Private) Limited, New Delhi.
In the recent Indian history, very rarely have we come across a situation like that which exists now. We have an ascending economic trajectory, continuously rising foreign exchange reserves and global recognition of our technological competence. We also have the energy of 540 million youth, the connectivity of 20 million people of Indian origin in various parts of the planet, and the interest shown by many developed countries to invest in our engineers, scientists and other professionals including setting up of new research and development centres in India. The government is committed to economic development by ensuring a growth rate of 7 to 8 per cent annually, enhancing the welfare of the farmers and workers, and unleashing the creativity of the entrepreneurs, businesspersons, scientists, engineers and other productive forces of the society.

Our book India 2020: A Vision for the New Millennium is all the more important now, when the youth has tremendous opportunities to work in various important knowledge sectors like agriculture, industry, and information and communication technology.

When India 2020 was published in 1998, the original English edition became a best-seller, as did the Tamil edition. These two editions have together sold more than 2,20,000 copies. The book has subsequently been translated into nine other Indian languages, as well as Chinese, Serbian, Croatian and Sinhalese.

I have received hundreds of letters and emails from people saying that this book gave them a mission and the boldness to act. People from all walks of life use it as reference material. Institutions have taken inspiration to start small- and large- scale industries. This book has become part of syllabus in some universities and schools. Other authors and editors have quoted from it extensively.

This students' edition, Mission India, is intended primarily as a road map for young people. It will also be useful for young entrepreneurs. The facts, figures and tables have largely been taken from India 2020, but have been updated and modified to suit the new readership.

The book begins with the poignant question: can India become a developed country? The chapter analyses our strengths and weaknesses, and concludes that we should have faith in ourselves and give our undivided attention to the goal of making India a developed nation.

The next five chapters look at five core industries where we must acquire a reasonable self-sufficiency over the next decade and half in order to achieve this goal. These are agriculture and food processing; materials and the future; chemical industries and biotechnology; manufacturing for the future; and strategic industries. There is a lot more that can be done to develop these industries and each chapter looks at what we must aim for each area.

The seventh chapter discusses the services sector and the Indian education system. It emphasizes the need for inputs relating to research and inquiry, creativity and entrepreneurship in our educational system to make a attitudinal change in the young minds, and looks at the latest technology tools that can be used to take quality education to all corners of the country.

The eighth and ninth chapters, 'Healthcare for All' and 'The Enabling Infrastructure' deal with two aspects which are the sine qua non of a developed nation. These chapters look at the present conditions in these vital areas and analyse what has to be done to achieve a new dimension. Also given are examples of the role played by emerging technologies in these vital sectors.

The last chapter, 'Realizing the Vision', takes a final look at the trends seen in India's development today. It outlines how every individual and organization can play a role in reaching our goal. This chapter, we believe, is crucial for everybody to decide on what she/he can do for this great mission of transforming India into a developed nation.

I would like to dedicate this book to all those Indians who believe that we can achieve the goal of Developed India Vision 2020.

My greetings and best wishes to you all.



A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

February 2005


Contents
PREFACE (vi)
CAN INDIA BECOME A DEVELOPED COUNTRY? (1)
AGRICULTURE AND FOOD PROCESSING (13)
MATERIALS AND THE FUTURE (23)
CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES AND BIOTECHNOLOGY (37)
MANUFACTURING FOR THE FUTURE (46)
STRATEGIC INDUSTRIES (55)
THE SERVICES SECTOR AND THE INDIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM (64)
HEALTHCARE FOR ALL (76)
THE ENABLING INFRASTRUCTURE (84)
REALIZING THE VISION (95)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS (104)

Children Ask Kalam
Children and A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
Published By:
Pearson Education, Registered Office: 14, Local Shopping Centre , Panchsheel Park, New Delhi-17
Publishers' Note

Dear Children

Our President Dr APJ Abdul Kalam, widely loved and admired by people of all age groups, is very popular with children. His humility, easy accessibility, simplicity, warmth and affection for children make them connect with him.

Everyday, hundreds of children from every nook and corner of the country write to Dr. Kalam asking him questions on a variety of topics. Sharing their concerns President Kalam takes time out to respond to these queries. Children Ask Kalam is unique collection of the communication between Dr Kalam and children.

This book brings Dr Kalam's view on a variety of topics to a wider audience. The president's answers bring to the fore his multifaceted personality. Though he writes in simple language, you will find that his answers do not shy away from addressing the most complex of issues. The letters have been selected carefully after much thought. For the purpose of clarity, the book is divided into six themes - education, science, children's issues, nation, spirituality and general. This book brings to fore the concerns of the children of this country and our President's initiatives to alleviate them.

We are confident that the book will help you develop an intimate understanding of our President's world view. We expect that the book with its unique and valuable information will assist you in developing a better understanding of our President and keep you well informed about various aspects you know little of but are curious about. We would appreciate your suggestions for further improvement.

The Publishers
Contents
Publishers' Note
Acknowledgements
Children’s Issues (9)
Nation(19)
Education(43)
General(65)
Science(81)
Spirituality(105) 

Guiding Souls
Dialogues on the Purpose of life : A.P.J. Abdul Kalam with Arun K Tiwari
Published By:
Ocean Books Pvt. Ltd., 4/19 Asaf Ali Road, New Delhi-2















its past blunders condemning young generations to find their way afresh in the darkness of basic ignorance. It is this ignorance that this book attempts to dispel. The dialouge in the book is not conclusive. I invite readers to interact and keep exploring the purpose of human lives. Afterall, we are all Musafirs (travelers).

The water in your jug

Is brackish and low

Smash the jug

And come to the river.
Contents
Part I
PERPETUITY (1)
PART II
GUIDEPOSTS(45)
PART III
THE ESSENCE(109)
Notes(149)
Acknowledgements(157)
Bibliography(159)
Index(163) 

Indomitable Spirit
Published By:
Rajpal & Sons, Madarsa Road, Kashmere Gate, New Delhi - 110006.


Contents
Inspiring Lives(1)
My Teacher(19)
The Mission of Education(41)
Creativity and Innovation(61)
Art abd Literature(79)
Abiding Values(95)
Science and Spirituality(115)
Tomorrow's Citizens(135)
Empowered Women(151)
Towards a Knowledge Society(163)
Building a Developed India
Enlightened Citizenship(197)
Creative Leadership(213)
Indomitable Spirit(231)
Reference(245) 

Inspiring Thoughts
by APJ ABDUL KALAM
Published By:
Rajpal & Sons, Madarsa Road, Kashmere Gate, New Delhi - 110006.
What would you like
to be remembered for?
You have to evolve yourself
and shape your life.
You should write it on a
page and that maybe a very
important page in the book of
human history.

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